Indian charcoal-tree/ Indian Nettle/Pigeon wood/ Jivan/ Kasoori (Trema orientalis) is a fast growing nitogen fixing tropical shade tree that grows well on poor soil and helps reclaim deforested areas. Its a short lived opportunist that claims the gaps in the forest areas and often contributes to the regeneration of the forest by providing shade to the saplings of bigger, slow-growing forest species. It is known to improve soil fertility. The tree is shorter in drier areas. In the relatively dry hills of Morni it resembles a large shrub. Leaves are long and tapering and margins are finely serrated. Flowers are small, inconspicous, greenish and appear in late winter. The bark is smooth, light grey with prominent lenticels (cork cell clusters). The wood is soft and burns well when dry. It is used for producing paper and charcoal. Leaves and bark have a wide range of medicinal uses. The tree is home to insects that feed on the fruit and these in turn draw pigeons and doves who may nest in this tree (hence the name pigeon wood). The tree also attracts a range of butterflies. The stone of the fruit is pitted.